Bangladesh is a democratic republic with two spheres of government: national and local. Local government is enshrined in the constitution and the main legislative texts include several local government acts/ordinances: the Zila Parishad Act 2000; the Local Government (Upazila Parishad) Act 1998; the Local Government (Union Parishad) Act 2000; the Local Government (Pourashava) Act 2009; the Local Government (City Corporation Act 2009 and the Hill District Council Act 1989. The local government division within the Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives is responsible for local government, with the exception of the hill district councils, which are under the Ministry of Hill Tract Affairs. There are 64 administrative districts and below this a tiered system of local government comprising single-tier urban authorities made up of ten city corporations and over 300 municipalities (pourashavas); and a three-tiered rural local government system comprising 61 zila (district) parishads, 485 upazila (sub-district) parishads, 4,502 union parishads, as well as three hill district parishads. All local governments have the power to levy taxes and rates and the range of functions for which each type of authority is responsible varies widely, from public health and hospitals, education and social welfare for city corporations and pourashavas, to the implementation of development projects, public libraries and roads for upazila and union parishads..
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