Malaysia practises parliamentary democracy with constitutional monarchy. The country has three tiers of government: federal, state and local. The federal constitution of Malaysia makes provision for local government and the main governing legislation includes the Local Government Act 1976 (Act 171) for the main peninsula and the Local Authorities Ordinance 1996 and Local Government Ordinance 1961 for the states of Sabah and Sarawak respectively. While the local authorities are under the purview of the respective state governments, the Ministry of Housing and Local Government (MHLG) is responsible for formulating, executing and monitoring all laws pertaining to local government while local authorities in the Federal Territories are subject to the purview of the Ministry of Federal Territories and Urban Well-Being. There are three types of local authorities in Malaysia: city councils, municipal councils and district councils. The income of local authorities is from three sources, namely taxes, non-tax revenue and allocations from federal as well as state governments.The three types of local government have a range of responsibility reflecting their size and capacity. All three types must provide basic infrastructure and public utilities, whilst municipalities and cities additionally provide for urban planning, public health and waste management, and city councils further provide revenue collection activity and law enforcement.
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