Commonwealth Local Government Forum

Local government finance

Resourcing local government remains a central challenge to effective decentralisation. This section has content relating to different models of fiscal decentralisation, options for identifying new sources of local revenue, such as local property tax; and strategies for improving collection and deployment of own-source revenue. It also offers information about improving the borrowing potential of local government, innovative financing models such as municipal bonds, shared services, and public private partnerships.

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Mining in Africa : Are Local Communities Better Off?

his study focuses on the local and regional impact of large-scale gold mining in Africa in the context of a mineral boom in the region since 2000. It contributes to filling a gap in the literature on the welfare effects of mineral resources, which, until now, has concentrated more on the national or macroeconomic impacts. Economists have long been intrigued by the paradox that a rich endowment of natural resources may retard economic performance, particularly in the case of mineral-exporting developing countries. Studies of this phenomenon, known as the “resource curse,” examine the economy-wide consequences of mineral exports. Africa’s resource boom has lifted growth, but has been less successful in improving people’s welfare. Yet much of the focus in academic and policy circles has been on appropriate management of the macro-fiscal and governance risks that have historically undermined development outcomes. This study focuses instead on the fortune of local communities where resources are located. It aims to better inform public policy and corporate behavior on the welfare of communities in Africa in which the extraction of resources takes place.

Author: Punam Chuhan-Pole, Andrew L Dabalen, Bryan Christopher Land Publisher: World Bank Publication year: 2017


The impact of smart technologies in the municipal budget: increased revenue and Reduced expenses for better services

This document is the result of the discussions held during the 2016 Uraía Workshop which took place in Nicosia, Cyprus on April 19 and 20th, 2016. It is a working paper made in collaboration with the participants who attended the workshop including representatives of local governments, city networks, service and technology providers, civil society, international organizations and research institutes from all around the world. It gathers general recommendations on the use of SMART technologies to improve municipal finances and it is based on the participants’ experiences.

Author: Mariana Nascimento Collin Publisher: Uraía Platform Publication year: 2017


Subnational governments around the world: Structure and finance

This study presents the main organisational and financial indicators related to subnational governments in 101 federal and unitary countries worldwide. It provides, through country profiles and a synthesis analysis, qualitative information on subnational government structure and responsibilities, as well as macro financial data assessing subnational government spending, investment, revenue and debt. Financial indicators of the country profiles are accompanied by short comments on the structure of expenditure and investment (by type and economic function), revenue (tax, grants, user fees and property income, etc.) and the main characteristics of the debt and fiscal rules.

Author: UCLG Publisher: UCLG Publication year: 2016


Paying for Stormwater Management: What are the Options?

On the afternoon and evening of July 8, 2013, heavy rains flooded parts of Mississauga, disrupting the lives of residents and damaging public and private property. The stormwater management system in the city proved inadequate to meet the levels of runoff experienced on that day. Mississauga is not the only city in this situation. In 2007, the Federation of Canadian Municipalities estimated that the stormwater management infrastructure deficit across Canada stood at approximately $31 billion. The Ontario Ministry of Public Infrastructure Renewal (now the Ministry of Economic Development, Employment and Infrastructure) estimated in 2005 that between 2005 and 2020, water infrastructure needs in the province would require investments of $28 billion for capital renewals, $12.4 billion to reduce asset and project backlogs, and $10.1 billion for growth. Stormwater management infrastructure controls the quality and quantity of stormwater that reaches water bodies and protects the health, safety, and sustainability of public and natural environments. The July 8 storm highlighted the need to direct significant amounts of financial and political capital towards municipal infrastructure management. This paper evaluates the financial tools available to fund stormwater infrastructure (property taxes, development charges or cash-in-lieu payments, grants, borrowing, and user charges), and proposes user charges as the most appropriate. User charges are fees earmarked to specific projects or services. They are based on a benefits-received principle, and are considered a fair form of revenue, because the beneficiaries of a service are directly charged for their consumption of that service. Further, user charges are a dedicated and stable funding source based on clear objectives related to the city’s stormwater infrastructure needs. None of the alternative funding tools offers the same combination of stable and predictable revenues and fair pricing. The paper also describes how the City of Mississauga is currently implementing a user charge dedicated to stormwater management, with billing introduced in early 2016.

 

Author: Daniella Dávila Aquije Publisher: University of Toronto Publication year: 2016


Did the Land Transfer Tax Impact Housing Sales in Toronto?

This paper looks at the City of Toronto’s 2008 Land Transfer Tax (LTT) and its impact on housing sales in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Housing sales declined in Toronto in 2008 where the LTT was implemented, but sales also declined in Toronto’s suburbs and in other cities, such as Vancouver and Montreal, where the LTT shouldn’t have had any influence. It was not just the LTT, but the recession in 2008 that contributed to housing market declines across Canada and beyond. This paper builds on previous research by including condominiums in addition to single-family homes in the analysis, accounting for the additional influence of the recession, and comparing the decline in sales in Toronto to the relative increase in sales in the suburbs.

Author: Murtaza Haider, Amar Anwar, Cynthia Holmes Publisher: University of Toronto Publication year: 2016


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